The two main players are NASA and SpaceX, which worked closely together on missions to the Moving To Mars Because I Need More Space Mars limited Shirt International Space Station but have competing ideas about what a Mars mission would look like in the crew.
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Mass limits the size of the Mars spacecraft and what it can do in space. Every operation costs fuel to fire the rocket engine, and the fuel must now be carried into space aboard a spacecraft. Both Earth and Mars have (almost) circular orbits and a movement called Hohmann motion is the most fuel-efficient way to travel between the Moving To Mars Because I Need More Space Mars limited Shirt two planets. Basically, without going into too much detail, this is where a spaceship performs combustion into an elliptical transfer orbit from planet to planet.
The Hohmann transition between Earth and Mars takes approximately 259 days (from 8 to 9 months) and is only possible about every two years due to the different orbits around the Sun of Earth and Mars. A spaceship could reach Mars in less time (SpaceX claims six months) but – you guessed it – it would take more fuel to do it that way. Let’s say our spaceships and crew arrive at Mars. The next challenge is landing.
But Mars’ atmosphere is about 100 times thinner than Earth. That means less potential for drag, so it’s impossible to land safely without some sort of support. Mars’ thin atmosphere means it cannot hold heat as well as it does on Earth, so life on Mars is characterized by extreme temperatures during the Moving To Mars Because I Need More Space Mars limited Shirt day/night cycle.
Mars has a maximum temperature of 30 ℃, which sounds quite pleasant, but its minimum temperature is -140 ℃ and its average temperature is -63 ℃. The average winter temperature in the South Pole of Earth is around -49 ℃. So we need to be very selective about where we choose to live on Mars and how we manage the temperature during the night. Gravity on Mars is 38% more than Earth (so you’ll feel lighter) but the air is mostly carbon dioxide (CO₂) with a few percent nitrogens, so it’s completely untreatable. We need to build a climate-controlled place just to live there.